Development and Application of a Methodology to Assess Sanitary Risks in Maputo, Mozambique
Sanitation-related health risks in low-income urban areas are concentrated in localities in which sanitation facilities and infrastructure are poorly developed and maintained. A simple and systematic approach to quantify these risks can be used to identify vulnerable communities and to support decisions about the types of interventions to mitigate these risks. The methodology described in this paper utilizes local stakeholder knowledge in a participatory process to score sanitation risks, using a framework of indicators that provides a quantitative assessment of the intensity and distribution of risk. The approach considers the extent of hazardous events related to faecal contamination of the environment, the level of local community exposure to this hazard, and vulnerability factors that exacerbate the impacts of infection. The paper describes the development of the methodology and its application in Maputo and outlines how this approach might be used to support the preparation of city sanitation plans. The approach is validated through the use of a conventional household survey, the results of which are compared with those from the community workshops.